Více času na podstatné

ISSN: 1804-0195

Ročník / Issue 2012:

 

WASTE FORUM 2012, 4, str. 159 - 241

 

OBSAH  
Úvodní slovo šéfredaktora 161
Pro autory 161
Metoda "minimální hodnoty" a její využití v analýze efektivnosti běžných výdajů obcí na nakládání s odpady
Method of "minimal value" in the analysis of efficiency of current municipal expenditures on waste management

Jana SOUKOPOVÁ, Michal STRUK
162
Vliv konkurence na výši výdajů na nakládání s odpady obcí - případová studie Jihomoravského kraje
Impact of competition on expenditures on waste management of municipalities of South Moravian Region

Jana SOUKOPOVÁ, Ivan MALÝ
173
Vyvolané náklady firem v ČR související s ohlašováním do integrovaného registru znečišťování
Companies compliance costs of reporting to the Integrated pollution register

Vítězslav MALÝ, Lenka SLAVÍKOVÁ, Eliška VEJCHODSKÁ
184
Změna teploty jako indikátor biologické konverze odpadů z výroby vína při použití členovců Eisenia foetida
Study of Environmental Accounting and Its Effect of Temperature on Biological Conversion of Winery Waste

Andrea JUANOLA FREIXAS, Ivan LANDA, Marek MERHAUT
191
Srovnání podílů vybraných aromatických uhlovodíků v dehtové frakci po pyrolýze pneumatik
Comparison of selected aromatic hydrocarbons in the tar fraction after pyrolysis of tires

Dagmar JUCHELKOVÁ, Zuzana POLÁČKOVÁ, Iva MACHÁČKOVÁ, Veronika SASSMANOVÁ, Jaroslav FRANTÍK
198
Monitoring kvality popelů ze spalování biomasy (1. část - živiny)
The ash quality monitoring from biomass combustion (Part 1 - nutrients)

Pavla OCHECOVÁ, Pavel TLUSTOŠ, Jiřina SZÁKOVÁ, Ivana PERNÁ, Tomáš HANZLÍČEK, Jan HABART
204
Rýchlootáčková rotačná pec na sušenie bioodpadov
High revolution rotary furnace for biowaste drying

Ján SPIŠÁK, Imrich KOŠTIAL, Ján MIKULA, Dušan NAŠČÁK
210
Snižování obsahu popelovin v hydrolyzátech keratinu dialýzou
Reducting of ash content in keratin hydrolysates by dialysis

Ondřej KREJČÍ, Pavel MOKREJŠ
216
Koncepce elektromembránových procesů pro zpětné využití odpadních vod obsahujících dusičnan amonný
Conception of electromembrane processe for reuse of waste water containing ammonium nitrate

Lubomír MACHUČA, David TVRZNÍK, Vladimír KYSELA
222
Štúdium kinetiky a porovnanie adsorpčnej účinnosti vybraných prírodných a syntetických materiáloch pre aniónové polutanty PO43-, SO42- a NO3-
Study of adsorption kinetics of PO43-, SO42- a NO3- anionts onto selected natural and syntetic materials

Renata HODOSSYOVÁ, Eva CHMIELEWSKÁ, Katarína GÁPLOVSKÁ
229
Environmentálne adsorbenty a iónomeniče. Prehľad vývoja a analytická charakterizácia pomocou S(BET), SAXS a TGA
Environmental adsorbents and ion-exchangers. A historical review and analytical characterization

Eva CHMIELEWSKÁ
236
Hodnocení inovativnosti environmentálních technologií - nový evropský nástroj na podporu ekoinovací
Jiří ŠTUDENT
236


ABSTRACTS

Method of "minimal value" in the analysis of efficiency of current municipal expenditures on waste management
Jana SOUKOPOVÁ, Michal STRUK
Masaryk University, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Department of Public Economics, Lipová 41a, 602 00 Brno, e-mail: soukopova@econ.muni.cz
Summary
In this paper we decompose the process of the municipal waste management expenditures evaluation, and we construct a method for their analysis which, based on inputted variables, calculates "minimal value" of expenditures per municipal waste ton that municipality should spend. Through these variables the method should be able to reflect the uniqueness of each analysed municipality and take into account its size, amount of produced municipal waste, as well as distance from the waste disposal facility and waste disposal rates. Calculated expenditures/costs per waste ton are compared with the real expenditures in selected group of 22 large municipalities with population of 10 thousand citizens and more. This method could help municipalities with negotiation of the better prices with the waste collection companies and therefore lead to the increased efficiency of municipal expenditures on waste management.
Key words: municipal waste management, current municipal expenditures, efficiency, method of "minimal value"

Impact of competition on expenditures on waste management of municipalities of South Moravian Region (in Czech)
Jana SOUKOPOVÁ, Ivan MALÝ
Masaryk University, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Department of Public Economy, Lipová 41a, 602 00 Brno, e-mail: soukopova@econ.muni.cz
Summary
The paper contains results of performed analysis and evaluation of municipal expenditure on solid waste management per capita and evaluation of the influence of environment competitiveness and character of company of the efficiency of these expenditures. Evaluation and comparison is performed on the 673 South Moravian municipalities.
Keywords: waste management, competitiveness, efficiency, current municipal expenditure on waste management, the South Moravian Region.

Companies compliance costs of reporting to the Integrated pollution register (in Czech)
Vítězslav MALÝ, Lenka SLAVÍKOVÁ, Eliška VEJCHODSKÁ
IEEP, Institute for Economic and Environmental Policy, Faculty of Economics and Public Administration, University of Economics Prague, W. Churchilla 4, 130 67 Prague 3, e-mail: maly@ieep.cz, slavikova@ieep.cz, vejchode@vse.cz
Summary
The paper deals with the calculation of compliance costs of companies related to the reporting of data into the Integrated pollution register. The analysis is based on previous studies (among them, Crain and Crain (2010), (Hodges, 1997)) and is performed on a representative survey of a random sample of subjects. The main identified categories according to the contribution to the total compliance costs were labor costs, outsourcing (outsourcing costs) and costs of measurement and software.
Keywords: compliance costs, integrated pollution register, environmental regulation

Change in Temperature as an Indicator of Biological Conversion of Winery Waste
Andrea Juanola FREIXASa, Ivan LANDAb, Marek MERHAUTb
aDepartment of Environmental Geosciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Kamycka 1176, 165 21 Prague 6-Suchdol, e-mail: hlavova@fzp.czu.cz
bInstitut of Hospitality Management, Svidnicka 506/1, 181 00 Prague, e-mail: i.landa@email.cz

Summary
Our observations and literature research indicate that vermicomposting is a very suitable method for utilization of waste from wine production. This organic matter is usually used as an agricultural fertilizer, however, overproduction of grape pomace from wine production in recent years has led to its direct application to the soil in rural areas. However the associated release of tannins and phenols has resulted in negative effects on the growth of the plant roots. The adverse effect previously mentioned and other disadvantages of this material as a fertilizer (e.g. seeds contained, low pH level, high volume...) could be reduced with the treatment of the above using biological conversion of matter (i.e. vermicomposting) as an alternative to their disposal or use for direct application. This paper summarizes results of experiments focusing on the utilization of wine waste using Eisenia foetida (Savigny, 1826) in outdoor conditions in the pile 3 x 1,4 m in the grid of 150 points, particularly to the analysis of the temperature dynamics during the process as a tool to verify the vermicomposting. Results of the experiment have shown that in the composting pile: a) a significantly heterogeneous temperature field is formed; b) the temperature did not exceed 45 °C; c) the regular aeration significantly shortens the biological transformation of waste; d) high temperature is kept also during the winter months when the outside temperature drops under -20 °C, the pile was covered with no thermal insulation layer (foil, straw bales, etc..).
Keywords: pomace, temperature, bioconversion, vermicomposting

Comparison of selected aromatic hydrocarbons in the tar faction after pyrolysis of tires (in Czech)
Dagmar JUCHELKOVÁa, Zuzana POLÁČKOVÁb, Iva MACHÁČKOVÁa, Veronika SASSMANOVÁb, Jaroslav FRANTÍKa
aFaculty of Mechanical Engineering
bFaculty of Metalurgy and Materials Engineering, Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, Ostrava
e-mail: dagmar.juchelkova@vsb.cz, zuzana.polackova@vsb.cz, iva.machackova@vsb.cz, veronika.sassmanova@vsb.cz , jaroslav.frantik@vsb.cz

Summary
The pyrolysis oil is becoming an attractive mixture, it is a liquid energy carrier and a source of general chemicals. The study is designed to evaluate the liquid phase (tar) which is a product of pyrolysis of tires. The main component the liquid phase are defined acronym BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene). The publication presents a comparison of yield BTEX and other important substances in the liquid fraction resulting from tire pyrolysis at 550 °C and 650 °C to published values
Keywords: pyrolysis liquid, tires, pyrolysis decomposition, BTEX.

The ash quality monitoring from biomass combustion (Part 1 - nutrients) (in Czech)
Pavla OCHECOVÁa, Pavel TLUSTOŠa, Jiřina SZÁKOVÁa, Ivana PERNÁb, Tomáš HANZLÍČEKb, Jan HABARta
a Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol, e-mail: ochecova@af.czu.cz
b Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics of the ASCR, v. v. i., V Holešovičkách 41, 182 09, Prague 8

Summary
The increase of biomass combustion in the Czech Republic causes necessity to find a suitable way for recycling of the increasing amount of by-products - ash. Nowadays, ash from the combustion of biomass remains largely unused in the Czech Republic, although it contains significant amount of valuable nutrients. In case of the return of ash to the soil it would be closed nutrient cycle, reduced landfilling and saved fertilizers expenditures. Only if the ash from the combustion of biomass will be returned into the biosphere, energy from biomass becomes truly sustainable technology. Our analysis of more than 50 ash from the biomass combustion confirmed the important content of macronutrients in these materials and therefore the current landfilling is uneconomical and contrary to the idea of sustainable development.
Keywords: ash, biomass, nutrients, pH, economics

High revolution rotary furnace for biowaste drying (in Slovak)
Ján SPIŠÁK, Imrich KOŠTIAL, Ján MIKULA, Dušan NAŠČÁK
Technická univerzita v Košiciach, Fakulta baníctva, ekológie, riadenia a geotechnológií, Vývojovo-realizačné pracovisko získavania a spracovania surovín, Nemcovej 32, 040 01 Košice, Slovenská republika, e-mail: jan.spisak@tuke.sk, imrich.kostial@tuke.sk, jan.mikula@tuke.sk, dusan.nascak@tuke.sk
Summary
Biowaste belongs to the most important renewable energy sources. In spite of the low cost of the primary energy, the cost of the produced energy is high. Drying is one of the important effective approaches for enhancement of the biowaste calorific value. The high revolution rotary furnace executing drying process by mechanical fluidization can realize drying process very intensively. Developed high revolution drying furnace has been verified by physical experiments and by simulations.
Keywords: biowaste, high revolution rotary furnace, drying process, heat transfer intensity, mathematical model.

Reducing of ash content in keratin hydrolysates by dialysis
Ondřej KREJČÍ, Pavel MOKREJŠ (in Czech)
Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Faculty of Technology, Department of Polymer Engineering, Nám. T. G. Masaryka 275, 76272, Zlín, e-mail: okrejci@ft.utb.cz
Summary
Keratin hydrolysates, prepared by an alkali-enzymatic hydrolysis from waste sheep wool, have a higher amount of a low-molecular matter (ash) than the original material (wool). The ash content is necessary to remove for better utilizations of these keratin hydrolysates. The aim of this research was to apply a dialysis (through cellulose membrane) to reduce the ash content in keratin hydrolysates. Several series of experiments were made and effect of chosen factors on the final ash content (dialysis efficiency) was observed. Very good results were obtained after 72 hours of dialysis, when almost 80 % of ash content was removed. Factors with the highest effect on dialysis efficiency were established temperature, time and changing of dialysis media.
Keywords: sheep wool, enzyme hydrolysis, keratin hydrolysate, dialysis.

Conception of electromembrane processes for reuse of waste water containing ammonium nitrate (in Czech)
Lubomir MACHUCAa, David TVRZNIKa, Vladimir KYSELAb
a MemBrain, s. r. o., Pod Vinici 87, Straz pod Ralskem 471 27, e-mail: lubomir.machuca@membrain.cz, david.tvrznik@membrain.cz
bMEGA, a. s., Pod Vinici 87, Straz pod Ralskem 471 27, e-mail: vladimir.kysela@mega.cz

Summary
Electromembrane processes could be used for treatment of a waste condensate from ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) production. The technology contains three autonomous parts. The first basic part is comprised of electrodialysis (ED) and two streams are generated from the raw condensate - a clean one with a concentration of NH4NO3 below 500 ppm and brine with a concentration between 16,000 and 20,000 ppm of NH4NO3. The clean stream is further purified in the second part - electrodeionization (EDI) down to 5 ppm of NH4NO3. The brine is more concentrated in the third part electrodialysis-concentrating (EDC) up to 100,000 ppm of NH4NO3. Only two products of pure water from EDI and ammonium nitrate concentrate from EDC are achieved due to an interconnection of streams from the autonomous parts. The main advantages of the proposed membrane technology are the elimination of waste water and the reuse of both products in the production plant.
Keywords: ammonium nitrate, electrodialysis, electrodeionization

Study of adsorption kinetics of PO43-, SO42- and NO3-onto selected natural and synthetic materials (in Slovak)
Renata HODOSSYOVÁa, Eva CHMIELEWSKÁa and Katarína GÁPLOVSKÁb
aDepartment of Ecosozology and Physiotactics
bChemical Institute, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava 4, e-mail: hodossyova@fns.uniba.sk, chmielewska@fns.uniba.sk

Summary
The aim of this work was to study the sorption mechanisms and kinetic processes taking place on the solid surface of mostly natural adsorbents. Summing the results, the kinetic properties of selected natural and synthetic adsorbents depending on their physico-chemical interactions with the anionic phosphate, sulphate and nitrate pollutants, were determined.
Keywords: Adsorption, kinetics, phosphate, sulphate, nitrate, pollutants

Environmental adsorbents and ion-exchangers. A historical review and analytical characterization (in Slovak)
Eva Chmielewská
Comenius University, Faculty of Natural Science, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia, e-mail: chmielewska@fns.uniba.sk
Summary
The contribution deals with some historical review of adsorbent´s development. Although, If the process of ion exchange may remain for the globe history as discovered in the year 1850, it has not been certainly applied as an industrial separation process untill 1905, when the German inventor Richard Gans demonstrated it as an unique process for water softening. About 50 years passed, mainly after the second WW II, when an extensive development of the new organic ion exchangers, fabricated usually in oil refineries or petrochemical companies, enabled to expand rapidly all the ion exchange processes for plenty of industrial applications. Some analytical techniques [S(BET), SAXS, TGA] were used for detailed characterization of the mostly zeolite based adsorption samples.
Keywords: Biopolymers, zeolite - clinoptilolite, combined organo-inorganic adsorbents, alginate, ODA surfactants, thermogravimetry, S(BET), Small angle X-ray spectrometry.

 

WASTE FORUM 2012, 3, str. 100 - 158

 

OBSAH  
Úvodní slovo šéfredaktora 102
Pro autory 102
Vermikompostování zahradního bioodpadu a čistírenského kalu
Vermicomposting of Garden Biowaste and Sewadge Sludge
Aleš HANČ, Petr PLÍVA
103
Využití vermikompostování pro utilizaci odpadu z výroby vína
Use of Vermicomposting for Utilization of Waste from Wine Production
Andrea Juanola FREIXAS, Ivan LANDA
111
Uplatnění alternativních pojiv pocházejících z úpravy fluidních popílků ve směsích recyklace za studena určených pro vozovky pozemních komunikací
Use of Alternative Binders Induced from the Treatment of Fluidized Fly-ashes in Cold-recycled Pavement Mixtures

Jan VALENTIN, Jan SUDA, Miloš FALTUS
117
Spôsoby znižovania obsahu síranov a ťažkých kovov z kyslých banských vôd (AMD)
Methods of Sulphates and Heavy Metal Removal from Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)

Tomislav ŠPALDON, Jozef HANČULÁK, Oľga ŠESTINOVÁ, Lenka FINDORÁKOVÁ, Tomáš KURBEL
126
Hodnocení environmentálních rizik recyklovaného kameniva ze stavebního a demoličního odpadu
Environmental Risk Assessment of Recycled Aggregates fromConstruction and Demolition Waste

Vladimíra VYTLAČILOVÁ
131
Laboratorní testy mikrovlnného ohřevu odpadů při vývoji technologie termické desorpce
Laboratory Tests of Solid Waste Microwave Heating in Thermal Desorption Technology Development

Jiří KROUŽEK, Pavel MAŠÍN, Jiří HENDRYCH, Martin KUBAL
137
Termická desorpce vybraných perzistentních organických polutantů při klasickém a mikrovlnném ohřevu
Thermal Desorption of Selected Persistent Pollutants with Use of Conventional and Microwave Heating

Jiří HENDRYCH, Jiří KROUŽEK, Pavel MAŠÍN, Martin KUBAL, Lucie KOCHÁNKOVÁ
144
Využití ozonu pro odbourávání perzistentních látek ve znečištěných podzemních vodách
Ozon Application for Removal of Persistent Pollutants from Contaminated Groundwater

Marek ŠVÁB
152
Týden vědy, výzkumu a inovací v Jeseníkách 158


ABSTRACTS

 

Vermicomposting of garden biowaste and sewage sludge
Ales HANCa, Petr PLIVAb
aCzech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, Prague,165 21, Czech Republic, e-mail: hanc@af.czu.cz
bResearch Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Drnovska 507, Prague,161 00, Czech Republic,
e-mail: petr.pliva@vuzt.cz

Summary
Use of garden biowaste and sewage sludge for vermicomposting would be useful especially for smaller municipalities with waste water treatment plants. The study was focused on the evaluation of temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and two forms of mineral nitrogen during five-month vermicomposting of these types of waste. Garden biowaste and its mixtures with sewage sludge should be pre-composted to achieve temperature below 25°C. The pH value decreased during the process and ranged from 6.9 to 7.3 at the end of the experiment. Electrical conductivity increased from 1.6 to 2.7 mS/cm to the range between 3.0 - 6.8 mS/cm. Content of N-NO3- increased in time and reached its maximum at the end of the process. The course of N-NO3- content was in inverse proportion to N-NH4+ content. Just the content of N-NH4+ was found as a critical parameter for vermicomposting of sewage sludge and its mixtures with garden biowaste. The optimal content of N-NH4+ in feedstock for surviving and living of earthworms should not exceed 200 ppm. The value could be achieved by longer pre-composting period or addition of biowaste with low content of N-NH4+. However, keeping of other conditions for successful vermicomposting is necessary.
Keywords: Vermicomposting, biowaste, sewage sludge, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, nitrogen

Use of vermicomposting for utilization of waste from wine production
Andrea Juanola Freixas, Ivan Landa
Department of Environmental Geosciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Kamycka 1176,
165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol,
e-mail: hlavova@fzp.czu.cz

Summary
Experiments are focused on the evaluation of dynamics of composting and vermicomposting of wine production waste (pomace) in two pilot scales with precomposted material. Characteristics of the process of vermicomposting were monitored according to notice 341/2008 coll. for the quality of cultivation composts. The most significant is the increase in extractable substances from 340 mg/kg to 1400 mg/kg in vermicomposts and to 720 mg/kg in compost which confirms the efficiency of the process of vermicomposting. As well as an increase of content of non-polar organic compounds from 200 mg/kg to 390 mg/kg and 560 mg/kg relating to the different change of organic matter quality for both treatments was experienced. The low C:N ratio of used material 14:1 led to unexpected increase to 16:1 in vermicompost and 20:1 in control. Hence, in praxis there is recommended to establish optimal conditions of the input substances for successful bioconversion such as optimization of C:N ratio to the level of 20 - 25:1.
Keywords: biological conversion, pomace, vermicomposting, composting, Eisenia foetida

Use of alternative binders induced from the treatment of fluidized fly-ashes in cold-recycled pavement mixtures
Ing. Jan Valentin, Ph.D., Ing. Jan Suda
Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Road Structures, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague 6
e-mail: jan.valentin@fsv.cvut.cz, jan.suda@fsv.cvut.cz

Mgr. Miloš Faltus
Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mining and Geology, 17.listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba
e-mail: geologicus@seznam.cz

Summary
Presently the focus in road construction sector concentrates on technologies and techniques, which allow decreasing energy demand necessary for their production. At the same time attention is paid to decreasing construction costs related to new structures or pavement rehabilitation works. In the Czech Republic in this connection the development during last ten years was oriented in increased extend on cold in-place recycling techniques. Certain positive potential of this group of techniques is the possibility to use so called energetic by-products in a form of alternative binders or fillers (fine graded particles). These by-products, coming from coal combustion, have a relatively broad range of possible applications especially like alternative substitution of normally used hydraulic binders (cement, lime) in cold recycling mixes. Within the experimental activities of Faculty of Civil Engineering CTU in Prague commonly used cement was replaced by fly-ashes or inorganic loose binder obtained by mechanical activation of fluidized fly-ash. With respect to limited knowledge of behavior and properties of mixes if an alternative material is used, it is necessary to specify correctly newly designed mixes. For assessed mixes basic volumetric properties, as well as strength and deformation characteristics were determined. Within the evaluation of particular performance characteristics the influence of different aggregate grading on strength properties was assessed as well. From the expected use leaching tests were done for selected mixes as well as combined water and frost susceptibility tested. Some of so far gained results are presented in the paper
Key words: fly-ash, mechanically activated fly-ash, fluid coal combustion, mechanical activation, cold asphalt recycling techniques, indirect tensile strength, stiffness, water sensitivity

Methods of Sulphates and Heavy Metals Removal from Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)
Tomislav ŠPALDON1, Jozef HANČUĽÁK, Oľga ŠESTINOVÁ, Lenka FINDORÁKOVÁ, Tomáš KURBEL 
Institute of Geotechnics Slovak Academy of Science
Watsonova 45, 043 53 Košice, Slovak Republic
e-mail: spaldon@saske.sk

Abstract
Heavy industry and specially an impact of mining, despite of the fact that it is on the downgrade now, significantly facilitates the deterioration of surface waters quality. Besides the technological water from the operating plants, there is a huge amount of secondarily polluted mining waters due to the rainfall. The rainfall water in the underground areas in old mining works gradually chemically and biologically-chemically reacts with the surrounding rock environment and brings amount of harmful substances to the surface and in such way it pollutes the surface water. The pollutants include mainly heavy metals, sulphates, chlorides, phosphates and other substances. From the viewpoint of surface waters quality the area in the vicinity of the Smolník municipality is known as the one of the worst in Slovakia for a long time. So, the Smolník brook is ranked in the worst - the fifth degree of quality as a highly polluted brook.
Keywords: waste water, sorption, precipitation, desulphation, AMD

Environmental risk assessment of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste
Vladimíra Vytlačilová
Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Concrete and Masonry Structures, Thákurova 7,166 29 Prague 6,
e-mail: vladimira.vytlacilova@fsv.cvut.cz

Summary
This paper deals with analysis of the content of hazardous substances in recycled aggregates obtained by recycling of construction and demolition waste. This paper presents the initial results of an experimental program aimed at monitoring of selected environmental risk parameters. Attention is focused on the content of hazardous substances in dry matter and on ecotoxicological tests carried out on two species of autotrophic organisms ecotoxicity. The aim was to compare the results of laboratory tests of masonry rubble, concrete rubble and soil with stones from different recycling plants. The obtained values were compared with the limit values according to the legislation.
Keywords: Environmental risks, hazardous substances, construction&demolition waste, recyclates

Laboratory tests of solid waste microwave heating in thermal desorption technology development
Jiří Kroužek, Pavel Mašín, Jiří Hendrych, Martin Kubal
Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Praha 6.
e-mail: krouzekj@vscht.cz

Summary:
The paper presents results of the study of selected aspects of microwave thermal desorption laboratory research, which are able to affect the results repeatability. During microwave heating of solid materials, temperature measurements using optical-fiber probes at several batch points showed unequal temperature distribution. In addition, the average bulk temperatures indicate a significant effect of sample size and shape on the heating rate varying for materials with different dielectric properties. These results represent an important experience with microwave heating of solid matrices and may lead to the optimization and improvement of laboratory test method.
Keywords: microwave heating, thermal desorption, remediation technology, solid wastes, temperature distribution, temperature measurements, optical-fiber sensor

Thermal desorption of selected persistent pollutants with use of conventional and microwave heating
Jiří HENDRYCH, Jiří KROUŽEK, Pavel MAŠÍN, Martin KUBAL, Lucie KOCHÁNKOVÁ
Vysoká škola chemicko-technologická v Praze
E-mail: jiri.hendrych@vscht.cz

Summary
The work deals with assessment of thermal desorption process by removal of selected persistent organic pollutants under defined process conditions from really and artificially contaminated materials. The influence of additional moistening of the material before thermal desorption process and the effect of the operation at atmospheric and reduced pressure was assessed. Conventional and microwave heating was applied.
Keywords: Thermal desorption, conventional heating, microwave heating, process conditions, persistent organic pollutants

Ozone application for removal of persistent pollutants from contaminated groundwater
Marek Svab
Vysoká škola chemicko-technologická, Technická 5, 160 00 Praha 6;
Dekonta, a.s., Dřetovice, 273 42 Stehelčeves,
e-mail: svab@dekonta.cz,

Summary
This contribution relates to an assessment of ozone efficiency for groundwater treatment by means of the chemical oxidation. Although ozonation can be effectively used in the field of the drinking water production, its efficiency for groundwater treatment can be strongly influenced by the water composition. In our study, we examined two different groundwater samples from contaminated sites in the Czech Republic. Ozone application was tested in order to remove persistent pollutants (hexachlorocyklohexanes and polychlorinated biphenyls) and chlorinated volatile pollutant (tetrachloroethylene). With respects to the different contaminants behaviour, we used various methodologies for the experiments: mixing of the solutions of contaminant and ozone and bubbling of ozone into the sample. The results indicate that ozone itself, thanks to its really strong oxidizing potential, can effectively and quickly oxidize all tested contaminants. However, influence of the water composition was confirmed as well. For example, although hexachlorocyclohexanes was effectively degraded in drinking water, there was no effect of ozonation in case of sample of real contaminated groundwater with high salinity. Similar results were achieved for tetrachlorethylene It confirms the assumption that application of the ozone for particular groundwater treatment needs preliminary (relatively simple) laboratory tests whether it might be efficient or not.
Keywords: Ozonation, remediation, groundwater, chemical oxidation, organic halogenderivatives


 

WASTE FORUM 2012, 2, str. 60 - 99

 

OBSAH  
Úvodní slovo šéfredaktora 62
Pro autory 63
Nabídka organizátorům odborných setkání 63
Waste management system for the road infrastructure in the Czech Republic
Systém hospodaření s druhotnými materiály do pozemních komunikací v ČR
Dušan STEHLÍK
64
Prieskum záujmu občanov na východnom Slovensku o separovanie komunálneho odpadu
Research of interest of citizens on the separation of municipal waste

Erika LIPTÁKOVÁ, Michal STRIČÍK
71
Vodík a methan z nakládání s popílky ze spoluspalování vytříděných odpadů nebo tuhých alternativních paliv
Hydrogen and methane in the handling of ash from the incineration of sorted waste or solid alternative fuels

Petr BURYAN, Zdeněk BEŇO
78
Za sucha lisovaný keramický střep s obsahem fluidního popílku a lomových odprašků
Dry pressed ceramic body based on fluidized fly ash and granite dust

Radomír SOKOLÁŘ, Simona GRYGAROVÁ, Lucie VODOVÁ
85
Zníženie produkcie jemnozrnných odpadov pri spracovaní magnezitu a nové technológie ich spracovania
Fine granular magnesite waste thermal treatment

Imrich KOŠTIAL, Eva ORAVCOVÁ, Ján GLOČEK, Ján SPIŠÁK, Katarína MIKULOVÁ POĽČOVÁ, Ján MIKULA
91
Seminář SPALOVÁNÍ TUHÝCH KOMUNÁLNÍCH ODPADŮ (6. - 7. 12. 2012) - Call for papers 98
Symposium ODPADOVÉ FÓRUM 2013 99


ABSTRACTS

 

Waste management system for the road infrastructure in the Czech Republic
Dušan STEHLÍK
Institute of Road Structures, Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno, Czech Republic, e-mail: stehlik.d@fce.vutbr.cz

Abstract
The article gives the information about the research project for the Ministry of Transportation "Secondary materials management system for the roads in Czech Republic". The results of this project should complete the knowledge and revise some of the today technological directives about these materials and further tries to simplify the access to the knowing on their use for the road constructions at the regional level.

Key words: waste materials, roads, pavements, recycled building materials, recycled asphalt and tar, catalogue of the waste materials for road construction.


Research of interest of citizens on the separation of municipal waste
Erika LIPTÁKOVÁ, Michal STRIČÍK
Podnikovohospodárska fakulta v Košiciach Ekonomickej univerzity v Bratislave, Tajovského 13, 041 30 Košice, Slovenská republika

Summary
To determine the current state of awareness and personal involvement of the population in the separation of municipal waste in towns and villages in East Slovakia in Košice and Prešov region. In 2011 we conducted a questionnaire survey. The results are presented in this paper. Up to 48% of respondents said that people are not motivated enough to separate the municipal waste. We also propose several measures that should help to increase interest in the separation of municipal waste. The most important measures are to reduce the fees for waste disposal, more frequent export of separated waste and promote separation.

Keywords: separation, municipal waste, citizens, questionnaire survey


Hydrogen and methane in the handling of ash from the incineration of sorted waste or solid alternative fuels
Petr BURYAN, Zdeněk BEŇO
Department of Gas, Coke and Air Pollution Control, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague

Abstract
By-products generated during combustion of solid alternative fuels derived from waste, which is not classified as hazardous or toxic, contain in many cases aluminum and aluminum carbide. The reaction of these compounds with water used in different technological processes in alkaline environment is accompanied with release of explosive gases.

Keywords: Hydrogen, ash, RDF, sorted waste, alternative fuels


Dry pressed ceramic body based on fluidized fly ash and granite dust
Radomir SOKOLAR, Simona GRYGAROVA, Lucie VODOVA
Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology of Building Materials and Components, Veveri 95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic

Summary
The article deals with the possibility of recovery of waste dust from the process of granite crushing and fluidized fly-ash in the dry-pressed ceramic body. The behavior of three different types of ceramic bodies (differing in the ratio of granite dust and fly ash) after firing at three temperatures is presented. Fly ash increases the porosity of the body and reduces its firing shrinkage and lightens the body after firing.

Keywords: dry pressed ceramic body, granite dust, fluidized fly ash


Fine granular magnesite waste thermal treatment
Imrich KOŠTIAL, Eva ORAVCOVÁ, Ján GLOČEK, Ján SPIŠÁK, Katarína MIKULOVÁ POĽČOVÁ, Ján MIKULA
Technical University of Košice, BERG Faculty, Košice, Slovak Republic, e-mail: imrich.kostial@tuke.sk, eva.oravcova@tuke.sk, jan.glocek@tuke.sk, jan.spisak@tuke.sk, katarina.mikulova.polcova@tuke.sk, jan.mikula@tuke.sk

Summary
In the framework of this paper new approaches to the magnesite waste decreasing and treatment are presented. The principal producers of the magnesite waste are rotary and shaft furnaces. For the rotary furnaces the new charging device was developed by which the charge layer thickness was increased more than two times. By this measure 25 % flue dust quantity decreasing was achieved. Further flue dust decreasing was achieved by the increasing of the furnace intensity. For this purpose radial burner was developed. Burner arrangement enables effective combustion of the secondary air.
Flue dust decreasing in the shaft furnaces was achieved by sintering temperature homogenisation through the furnace cross section. By application of the new immersed burner significant flue gas volume decreasing was achieved.
Flue dust thermal treatment enables its revaluation. For this purpose compact thin layer, furnace, microfluid and high revolution rotary furnaces were developed. Their verification proved high availability and effectiveness.


 

WASTE FORUM 2012, 1, str. 1 - 59

 

OBSAH  
Úvodní slovo šéfredaktora 3
Pro autory 3
Ověření použitelnosti Metodiky hodnocení implementace environmentálních politik na příkladu poplatků za uložení odpadu na skládky
Fees for Depositing Waste in Landfills

Alena HADRABOVÁ
4
Metody hodnocení ekologických a zdravotních rizik při využívání odpadů
Methods of ecological and health risks assessment in the use of waste

Anna CIDLINOVÁ, Magdaléna ZIMOVÁ, Ján MELICHERČÍK, Zdeňka WITTLINGEROVÁ, Petra ŠEVČÍKOVÁ
15
Testování ekologické vhodnosti stavebních výrobků
Testing of ecological suitability of building products

Hana ŠTEGNEROVÁ, Jaroslava LEDEREROVÁ, Miroslav SVOBODA, Pavel LEBER
23
Možnosť využitia recyklovaného kameniva z demolačného stavebného odpadu ako plniva do betónu
The possibility of use of recycled aggregate from construction demolition waste as an aggregate in concrete

Miriam LEDEREROVÁ
29
Studie vhodnosti využití struskového kameniva při výrobě vláknobetonu
Study of convinient use of the slag aggregate in fibre reinforced concrete

Vladimíra VYTLAČILOVÁ, Karel ŠEPS, Aneta RAINOVÁ
40
Vývoj činidla pro flotaci uhelných kalů na bázi biologických komponent
The development of agent for flotation of coal sludge based on biological components

Radim PAVLÍK, Jiří VIDLÁŘ
48
7. ročník česko-slovenského symposia
Výsledky výzkumu a vývoje pro odpadové hospodářství ODPADOVÉ FÓRUM 2012
58
Interaktivní sborník (archiv) ODPADOVÉHO FÓRA 2006 - 2010 zdarma ! 59

 


ABSTRACTS

 

Fees for Depositing Waste in Landfills
Alena HADRABOVÁ
Department of Political Sciente, Faculty of International Relations
Institute for Sustainalble Bussines, University of Economics, Prague, Winston Churchill Sq. 4, 130 67, Prague 3, Czech Republic


Summary
The objectives of the state environmental policy can be enforced through various means available to the relevant authorities. These are either tools of a directive, administrative nature, or market-oriented (economic) tools. The latter are supposed to produce the desired response on the basis of economic calculation done by polluters. The key question, which emerges in connection with these tools, is whether their implementation is truly effective, i.e. whether they really evoke the desired response and lead polluters to a behavior that is consistent with the objectives of the society. Information about the potential success or failure of the tool which is being considered can be useful to the relevant authorities at two different stages -- during decision making process of whether to use a particular tool or not, or for post evaluation of its effectiveness. Simple, understandable and usable methodology is necessary in order to perform at least an initial assessment of these tools. Therefore, according to the assignment and under a guaranty of the Ministry of Environment a team of investigators at the University of Economics in Prague, headed by associate professor, Ing. Petr Šauer, CSc., have designed a methodology for evaluating the implementation of environmental policies (thereinafter called "the methodology"), which should allow an assessment of such a kind.
Within this effort, the methodology applicability was tested on some selected tools, including fees for depositing waste in landfills, which have been implemented in the Czech Republic since 1991. While testing the methodology, applicability was the main goal of this part of the project. This effort also enabled researchers to reach an initial verification of the factual content of the issue, i.e. to answer the question of whether the fees for depositing waste in landfills actually contribute to achieving the set goal (reduction of waste deposited ) and/or whether they also have other - positive or negative - effects.
The paper is devoted to the description and analysis of the evaluative process of the proposed methodology on a selected example, i.e. on fees for landfilling - and presents the results of this project.

Keywords: Methodology, fees, landfill, effectiveness


Methods of ecological and health risks assessment in the use of waste
Anna CIDLINOVÁa,b, Magdaléna ZIMOVÁa,b, Ján MELICHERČÍKa, Zdeňka WITTLINGEROVÁb, Petra ŠEVČÍKOVÁb
aNational Institut of Public Heath, Šrobárova 48, 100 42 Praha 10,
bCzech University of Life Sciences Prague, The Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 21 Praha 6 - Suchdol


Summary
Methods of ecological and health risks assessment are mostly used for the evaluation of old ecological burdens. In terms of environmental and health risks, the current way of using waste and its direct application to the environment is not assessed adequately. Waste may contain toxic substances that could negatively influence the environment and consequently human health. On the other hand, most of the waste can be, under appropriate conditions, used as a substitute for primary sources. Thus in most developed countries methods of assessment of potential risks during recovery are being sought. The article deals with methods of assessing health and environmental risks during waste utilization. Assessment methods were applied to the energy by-products of coal.
These results were obtained within the project of the Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Science No.2011424003165 which followed the project of the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic No. Vav SP/2f3/118/08.
Project results clearly show that the used methods of risk assessment can objectively evaluate the health and environmental risks. At the same time the results showed that the energy by-products of coal loosely deposited into the environment without any subsequent modifications, which would lead to their stabilization, may pose a significant risk to human health and the environment.

Keywords: Risk analysis, energy by-products, individual lifetime cancer risk, Hazard Index, Crystal Ball.


Testing of ecological suitability of building products
Hana ŠTEGNEROVÁ, Jaroslava LEDEREROVÁ, Miroslav SVOBODA, Pavel LEBER
Research Institute of Building Materials, JSC, Hněvkovského 65, 617 00 Brno

Summary
Economical and environmental dealing with waste requires the development of new technologies for their usage. One of the options is fabrication of industrial waste as raw materials to construction materials and products. However, this procedure represents a certain risk for both population and nature.
Evaluation of ecological qualities of waste and building products is realized through ecotoxicological methods. These methods describe impact of substance on environment and living organisms.

Keywords: ecotoxicology, ecological suitability, waste, building products


The possibility of use of recycled aggregate from construction demolition waste as an aggregate in concrete
Miriam LEDEREROVÁ
Department of Material Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak Technical University in Bratislava

Summary
The contribution presents the results of research work aimed at verifying the possibility of use of waste recycled aggregate from concrete structures as aggregate to concrete or partial replacement of natural aggregates in concrete.
Properties of concrete from these aggregates were compared with the properties of concrete that had been made from natural aggregates.
Properties of recycled aggregate, workability of fresh concretes, compressive strength, static modulus of elasticity, and shrinkage of hardened concrete were evaluated.
The contribution summarizes the results obtained on the basic mechanical physical properties of cement composites and compares them with the reference concrete made from natural aggregate.

Keywords: recycled concrete, natural aggregates, cement, mechanical properties, workability, strength of recycled concrete.


Study of convinient use of the slag aggregate in fibre reinforced concrete
Vladimíra VYTLAČILOVÁ, Karel ŠEPS, Aneta RAINOVÁ
Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Concrete and Masonry Structures, Thákurova 7,166 29 Prague 6, E-mail: vladimira.vytlacilova@fsv.cvut.cz, karel.seps@fsv.cvut.cz, aneta.rainova@fsv.cvut.cz

Summary
The aim of this article is to present results of preliminary study of experimental program, which is focused on manufacturing of concrete with full replacement of natural stone aggregate by artificial crushed slag aggregate and with fibre reinforcement. The need to reuse waste products or by-products, which becomes more and more important in current time, leads to efforts to search new ways of waste materials reusing and new possibilities in combinations of typical construction materials and waste or secondary products of primary production or recycling. In scope of experimental program, which is aimed on utilization of slag aggregate available on Czech market in recycling line for construction and demolition waste, first objective was to collect actual information about production of this material. Further, basic mechanical and physical properties of slag aggregate with different origin were investigated, and testing specimens with full replacement of natural aggregate by granulated slag aggregate and polypropylene fibres were prepared. Resulting properties were compared with properties of concretes with substitution by other different recycled materials from construction side, which were also investigated on department of authors. Obtained data and results will be used in application and during optimization of concrete mixture composition, where alternative recycled aggregate would be used.

Keywords: Granulated slag aggregate, fibre reinforced concrete, mechanical and physical properties


The development of agent for flotation of coal sludge based on biological components
Radim PAVLÍKa, Jiří VIDLÁŘb
aOKD, a.s., Důl Karviná, závod Lazy, Karviná - doly, ul. Čs. armády č. p. 1, CZ-73506 Czech Republic
bFaculty of Mining and Geology, VSB-Technical Univerzity of Ostrava 17. listopadu 15, CZ-708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic,
E-mail: radim.pavlik@okd.cz, jiri.vidlar@vsb.cz


Summary
The article states experimental results connected with the research possibilities of the substitution of the existing petrochemical agents, used for flotation of black coal sludge in OKD plc., for a new agent, compound of biological components, i.e. components of renewable sources. The obtained results extend previously obtained and copyrighted findings. The new biological flotation agent consists of components, which are intermediate products or byproducts of the methyl ester production of rape-oil, bio ethanol. Based on the evaluated laboratory tests of flotation of many coal sludge samples taken from preparation plants of coal mine Karviná and coal mine ČSM, it can be stated that the new flotation agent provides the needed flotation efficiency. New composition of the biological flotation agent (marked Totalbio X) will be operationally tested in OKD, plc. coal mine Karviná, preparation plant facility of coal mine ČSA.

Keywords: flotation, agent, sludge