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ISSN: 1804-0195

Ročník / Issue 2013:

WASTE FORUM 2013, 4, str. 187 - 270

 

OBSAH  
Úvodní slovo šéfredaktora 189
Pro autory 189
LCA as a Communication Tool between Experts and Non-Experts - What can we do with LCA and cannot do?
Posuzování životního cyklu (LCA) jako komunikační nástroj mezi odborníky a neodborníky - Co můžeme učinit s LCA a co nemůžeme?

Kiyoshi Shibata
190
The Use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Method in Project and Environmental Education at VŠB - TUO
Využití metod posuzování životního cyklu (LCA) v projektech a environmentálním vzdělávání na VŠB - Technické univerzitě Ostrava

Jana Kodymová, Silva Heviánková, Miroslav Kyncl, Soňa Viceníková
195
Sustainable Industrial and Business Development
Udržitelný průmyslový a obchodní rozvoj

Keiki FUJITA
202
Mottainai Reuse Project in Japanese Business for Global Environment
Japonský projekt Mottainai opětovného využití elektronických výrobků za účelem snížení globální zátěže životního prostředí

Takashi Minakoshi
207
Simple Laboratory Tests of Semicontinuous High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion
Jednoduché laboratorní zkoušky semikontinuální vysokosušinové anaerobní digesce

Kateřina KAŠÁKOVÁ, Jiří RUSÍN, Kateřina CHAMRÁDOVÁ, Karel OBROUČKA
211
Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste in the Czech Republic
Energetické využití komunálního odpadu v České republice

Vladimír Lapčík
217
Technology for maintaining cleanliness of heat exchange surfaces of combustion equipment
Technologie pro udržování čistoty teplosměnných ploch spalovacích zařízení

Ladislav PAZDERA, Veronika BLAHŮŠKOVÁ, Adrian PRYSZCZ, Kateřina CHAMRÁDOVÁ, Pavel VDOVIČÍK, Karel OBROUČKA
225
Má konkurenční prostředí vliv na výdaje obcí na nakládání s komunálním odpadem v ČR?
Does the competitive environment influence municipal solid waste management (MSW) expenditures in the Czech Republic?

Jana SOUKOPOVÁ, Ivan MALÝ, Vojtěch FICEK
231
Posouzení vhodnosti kalu z praní křemenného písku pro výrobu lícových cihel
Sludge from the washing of quartz sand as a raw material for the production of facing bricks

Radomir SOKOLAR, Lucie VODOVA
240
Nakladanie s odpadom na stavbách - prípadové štúdie
Waste management at construction sites - case studies

Lenka SIROCHMANOVÁ, Marianna TOMKOVÁ
248
Stanovení objemových změn biomasy zpracovávané v zahradním kompostéru
Determination of Volume Changes of Biomass Treated in Home Composter

Bohdan STEJSKAL
257
Trojstupňová pec pre energetické zhodnocovanie biomasy
Three-stage furnace for biomass energetic treatment

Imrich KOŠTIAL, Ján MIKULA, Ján KEREKANIČ, Martin TRUCHLY
263
Institut environmentálních technologií - nové vědeckovýzkumné centrum na VŠB-Technické univerzitě Ostrava a Ostravské univerzitě 270

 

ABSTRACTS

 

Sustainable Industrial and Business Development
Keiki FUJITA
J. F. Oberlin University, Tokyo, Japan
Summary
In order to keep sustainability for Business and Industrial Development, two important items should be taken into consideration
One is global Environmental consideration and other one is Management consideration.
Global Environmental Problem has two characters, one is character through generation to generation where all human activities and influence are considered across parent, child, grandchild and great-grandchild's generation and the other is character of living together on the same boat where all human activities and influence are considered simultaneously at the same time. Concept of Environmental Justice is a matter of great importance.

Keywords: Development, industry, business, sustainable industrial development, sustainable business development, norms, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

Simple Laboratory Tests of Semicontinuous High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion
Kateřina KAŠÁKOVÁ, Jiří RUSÍN, Kateřina CHAMRÁDOVÁ, Karel OBROUČKA
VŠB-TU Ostrava, The Institute of Environmental Technology, 17. listopadu 15, Ostrava - Poruba 708 33, e-mail: katerina.kasakova@vsb.cz
Summary
This article presents the results of three laboratory model tests of semicontinuous high-solids anaerobic digestion carried out on simple apparatus of volumes from 0.02 to 0.03 m3. With all the three model tests, the substrate was batched and mixed manually in the reacting mixture daily on weekdays. In the model test 1, the batches consisted of the groats of winter triticale Agostino and the achieved biogas production was 2.97 mN3.m3.d-1 (based on 1 m3 of the total volume of the fermentor) at average methane content of 46 % of the volume. In the model test 2, the batches consisted of maize silage KWS KWS Atletico and the biogas production was 2.06 mN3.m3.d-1 at average methane content of 47 % of the volume. In the model test 3, the batches consisted of biogas biscuit meal of EKPO-EB type and the biogas production was 21.72 mN3.m3.d-1at average methane content of 55 % of the volume. The results were used for the proposal of new mobile technology of high dry matter of anaerobic digestion in horizontal bag.
Keywords: high-solids anaerobic digestion, methane, biogas, biowaste

The Use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Method in Project and Environmental Education at VŠB - TUO
Jana KODYMOVÁ, Silva HEVIÁNKOVÁ, Miroslav KYNCL, Soňa VICENÍKOVÁ
VŠB - Technická univerzita Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava - Poruba, e-mail: jana.kodymova@vsb.cz
Summary
This paper deals with the use of the LCA method in the development of special abilities in students of VŠB - Technical University as well as its use as a support tool in projects.
All life cycle analyses were performed in accordance with ISO 14040 and 14044 Standards, using SimaPro 7.2 software and Ecoinvent v2.1 database. The analyses were done according to a typical LCA study consisting of the following stages: goal and scope definition; life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis, with compilation of data both about energy and material flows and on emissions into the environment, throughout the life cycle of the case study; assessment of the potential impacts (Life Cycle Impact Assessment, LCIA) associated with the identified forms of resource use and environmental emissions.
The first part of this paper describes an example of a students' exercise which helps to develop their expert abilities. The following part focuses on a current project granted by the Ministry of Agriculture dealing with a biogas station. In this project the LCA method helps to indicate the key processes or used materials, which may have potentially negative environmental impacts. Based on LCA methodology, significant negative effects were determined in the event of one type of fermenter feedstock in the biogas station, i.e. grass harvested from the public area and incorporated into the silage.

Keywords: LCA, midpoint, Eco-indikator99, Biogas station, VŠB - TUO, environmental management, student´s abilities, SimaPro.

Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste in the Czech Republic
Vladimír LAPČÍK
VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, av. 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, e-mail: vladimir.lapcik@vsb.cz
Summary
The article summarizes possibilities of energy recovery from municipal waste. It describes the history of incineration and energy recovery from municipal waste in Czechoslovakia and then in the Czech Republic. The attention is paid to the three currently operated plants for energy recovery from municipal waste in the Czech Republic (ZEVO Malešice, SAKO Brno and TERMIZO Liberec). The following are the characteristics of the planned plants for energy recovery from municipal waste in the Czech Republic. All these plants operate essentially based on grate boilers with flue gas treatment at the highest technical level. The article also lists other technologies which can be used for energy recovery from municipal waste - these are gasification and pyrolysis units. The conclusion of this contribution is devoted to the current and future situation in the area of energy recovery from municipal waste in the Czech Republic.
Keywords: Municipal waste, energy use, incinerators based on grate boilers, gasification, pyrolysis.

Mottainai Reuse Project in Japanese Business for Global Environment
Takashi MINAKOSHI
International Research Institute for Environmental 3R Policy Studies (IRIEPS), Minakoshi Shokai Co., Ltd., Japan
Summary
The actual situation is Recycle before Reuse, or even there is no 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) waste management. The important thing is that E-waste is may not have reached the end lifetime. Since electronics lifecycle is becoming shorter, most of all those electronics are still in good working condition or just need miner repair to be able to use again. In other words, today most of valuable resources are lost, in Japan we say "Mottainai".
Meaning of Mottainai is a sense that we should not throw away anything while it is still useful or valuable, roughly "Don't waste". Mottainai in this one word can be expressed the 3R and also including mind of respect and gratitude for things.
The fact of matter, one day those reuse electronics also reaches end lifetime to be E-waste. IRIEPS's future goal is that collects those E-wastes which cannot reuse anymore from oversea and recycle in Japan.
Additionally, Mottainai reuse project is not only for electronics. It can expand to any of things from people's life such as furniture, clothes, dinnerware and others.

Keywords: Electronic (E) waste, 3R (= Reduce, Reuse and Recycle), Mottainai (Don't waste)

Technology for maintaining cleanliness of heat exchange surfaces of combustion equipment
Ladislav PAZDERA, Veronika BLAHŮŠKOVÁ, Adrian PRYSZCZ, Kateřina CHAMRÁDOVÁ, Pavel VDOVIČÍK, Karel OBROUČKA
VŠB-TU Ostrava, The Institute of Environmental Technology, 17. listopadu 15, Ostrava - Poruba 708 33, e-mail: ladislav.pazdera@vsb.cz
Summary
The formation of deposits on heat exchange surfaces of combustion equipment causes a decrease in heat exchange, a decrease in power, and consequently deterioration in the economic balance of combustion equipment. In order to decrease or limit the formation of deposits, a lot of mechanical systems are operated for cleaning, such as blow cleaning or jet washing, chipping, as well as vibration or acoustic methods. Besides mechanical methods, chemical methods can also be used.
This article focuses on the experimental use of the French technology DRIVEX. This technology is used for lowering the amount, as well as altering the physiochemical character, of the deposits forming on heat exchange surfaces of the combustion equipment during its operation. These changes should reduce the time necessary for cleaning, or lengthen the maintenance interval for various types of combustion equipment.
Verifying the DRIVEX technology mainly aims at reducing the amount of deposits formed on heat exchange surfaces. The operation of the hazardous waste incinerator of the company SITA CZ in Ostrava was selected for the experiment.

Keywords: combustion equipment, heat exchange surfaces, DRIVEX, cleaning deposits

LCA as a Communication Tool between Experts and Non-Experts - What can we do with LCA and cannot do?
Kiyoshi SHIBATA
Faculty of Social System Science, Chiba Institute of Technology, Japan
Summary
It is essential to investigate the chain reactions and their effects in complex and uncertain system for the reduction of environmental impact. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool to provide a clear view of the structure of the problem. However, LCA is becoming too much sophisticated tool only available for the experts, and the non-experts can do nothing but obey the expert's judgments. What should be done to encourage the non-experts to utilize the LCA results, and request experts to provide necessary and enough information?
Recently, technology assessment with public participants has been introduced to various techno-political issues. In this paper, possibility in introduction of the methodologies developed in public participating technology assessment to LCA are discussed to make LCA as an effective communication tool for the decision making.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Technology Assessment, Public Participation, Decision Making, Expert

Waste management at construction sites - case studies
Lenka SIROCHMANOVÁ, Marianna TOMKOVÁ
Stavebná fakulta TUKE, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovenská republika, e-mail: lenka.zupova@tuke.sk
Summary
Currently, for each activity, construction industry included arises as a byproduct a construction waste that must be stored, evaluated or recycled. Construction industry today, as one of the leading sectors of the economy, which aims are satisfying various human needs dapts his production to economical, technical and architectural conditions of demand. It uses the rapid development of technology and applies modern technologies and materials. Despite the progress and modernization construction, however, construction industry is still environmentally harmful through production of building materials and products (energy consumption in mining and manufacturing), traffic intensity (weight and intensity of transported material), site (noise, dust, debris) and long-term use of buildings. The theme of waste management is still very actual. This paper among other things provides case studies from different areas of construction with the different method of waste management on construction site. The aim is to detect the most common form of waste management on construction site.
Keywords: waste management, construction, reconstruction.

Sludge from the washing of quartz sand as a raw material for the production of facing bricks
Radomir SOKOLAR, Lucie VODOVA
Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology of Building Materials and Components, Veveri 95, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Summary
The article deals with the possibility of using plastic sludge, which is generated during the washing process of quartz sand in Ledce u Brna (LB MINERALS, Ltd.), for the production of facing bricks by standard brick technology from the plastic body. Sludge was assessed as a brick clay according to CSN 72 1564 and according to these criteria were assessed its suitability for the production of facing bricks (clinker) with low water absorption (HD group according to EN 771-1), which are not currently manufactured in the Czech Republic. The raw material used to manufacture clinker must have a very good sinterability, ie. the ability to create shard with low water absorption at the lowest firing temperatures.
Keywords: facing bricks, brick body, slugde from washing of quartz sand, porosity, frost resistance

Determination of Volume Changes of Biomass Treated in Home Composter
Bohdan STEJSKAL
Mendel University Brno, Fakulty of Agronomy, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno, email: bohdan.stejskal@mendelu.cz
Summary
The paper presents results of three experiments focused on the establishment of total grass biomass amount grown in the house garden during the growing season and volume of a home composter required for biomass treatment.
Grass in the experimental parts of the gardens was cut at regular intervals (1x2 weeks) during the growing season. During the experiment A the cut green biomass was mixed with wood shavings at a volume ratio of 3:1 while during experiments B and C the cut green biomass was pure. Raw-material appointed to composting was placed inside a home composter. During the composting process, the blended biomass was mixed and aerated for 1x4 weeks.
Due to composting process during growing season of six months the volume of composted raw-material was reduced to 31-45 % compared to volume of fresh material at the end of growing season. Before new growing season composted raw-material was reduced to 22-23 % compared to volume of fresh material.
The measured and calculated values show that the composter volume required for the treatment of grown-up and cut grass biomass per 1m2 of garden lawn is from 2.9 to 4.1 dm3. Due to fluctuations of grass biomass production in individual years, it is recommended to increase the required composter volume to 4-4.5 dm3 per 1m2 of garden lawn.

Keywords: biodegradable waste, home composting, garden grass treatment, composter volume, grass biomass

Does the competitive environment influence municipal solid waste management (MSW) expenditures in the Czech Republic?
Jana SOUKOPOVÁ, Ivan MALÝ, Vojtěch FICEK
Masaryk University, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Department of Public Economy, Lipová 41a, 602 00 Brno, e-mail: soukopova@econ.muni.cz
Summary
The paper analyses competitive environment of the waste management area. The Pardubice region and the period 2008-2012 were chosen for the analysis. Authors built on the research conducted in the South Moravian region over the years 2007-2011. That research did not confirmed theoretically expected influence of competitive environment onto municipalities' expenditures on the waste management. One possible explanation could stem from an existence of significant distortion of competitive environment in the South Moravian region officially reported by the Office for the Protection of Competition. In order to strengthen a validity of previously published results the authors select another region and they extend time period adding the year 2012. The authors work with the same hypothesis as previously. They assume there is a stronger correlation between competition and expenditures in municipalities having neighbours with another contractor. This statement implies from the assumption of lower marginal cost which competing companies achieve in the case of considering expansion or takeover of a new client. The results achieved from an analysis of selected sample of municipalities suggest we cannot prove again a direct influence of the competitive environment onto expenditures in Pardubice region. However, we found one remarkable detail. After cleaning the sample eliminating the data of municipalities, whose contracted providers were one of companies quoted in an official Office for the Protection of Competition report, the hypothesis was confirmed. The authors believe, it strongly suggests an existence of distortion effect of cartel onto the competition environment as well as municipalities´ expenditures in Pardubice region.
Keywords: waste management, competitiveness, efficiency, municipal solid waste management expenditure, cartel.

Three-stage furnace for biomass energetic treatment
Imrich KOŠTIAL, Ján MIKULA, Ján KEREKANIČ, Martin TRUCHLY
BERG Faculty,Technical University of Košice, Košice, Slovak Republic, e-mail: imrich.kostial@tuke.sk, jan.mikula@tuke.sk, jan.kerekanic@tuke.sk, martin.truchly@tuke.sk
Summary
Biomass is presently most important energy source. Its energy potential is of about 50% of all renewable energy sources. Biomass thermal evaluation is very topical and has great perspective. From the analysis of direct combustion, pyrolisis and gasification has followed that no one of them enables effective transformation of biomass energy on heat. From the energy and thermodynamic efficiency point of view, the most convenient is combination of pyrolysis, primary combustion and secondary combustion. Optimal solution is at maximum pyrolysis degree. The research of the presented approach was realised by mathematical and physical modelling.
Economical effectivity of biomass energeticall utilisation depends besides its costs, costs of its dressing on the costs of its thermal evaluation. In the presented contribution three basic modes of heat generation from biomass are presented: one stage, two stage and three stage. The three stage furnace with high temperature pyrolisis is presented. In this furnace pyrolitc gas and syngas are generated separately. By this arrangement heating value of the generated gas was increased by 1,5 MJ/m3.

Keywords: biomass, biomass waste, biomass thermal treatment, economic efficiency.

 

WASTE FORUM 2013, 3, str. 139 - 185

 

OBSAH  
Úvodní slovo šéfredaktora 138
Pro autory 138
Vlastnosti recyklovaného papiera
Characteristics of recycled paper

Iveta ČABALOVÁ
139
Inovovaná metoda solidifikace radioaktivních kalů s ohledem na zvýšení bezpečnosti při jejich zpracování
Innovated method of solidification of radioactive sludges taking into account the safety improvement during processing

Štěpán SVOBODA, Lukáš GRIČ, Josef SÜSSMILCH, Petr FABIÁN
149
Mapování siloxanů v procesu tvorby kalového plynu
Mapping of siloxanes in biogas production process

Alice PROCHÁZKOVÁ, Barbora MIKLOVÁ
156
Utilization od variol barium compounds as sulfates remover
Spôsoby znižovania obsahu síranov pomocou rôznych zlúčenín bária

Tomislav ŠPALDON, Jozef HANČUĽÁK, Oľga ŠESTINOVÁ, Lenka FINDORÁKOVÁ, Tomáš KURBEL
164
The use of migration tests in constructed wetlands
Využití migračních zkoušek v kořenových čistírnáchodpadních vod

Pavel ŠIMEK, Ivan LANDA, Marek MERHAUT, Andrea Juanola FREIXAS
170
Potenciálne využitie oxidu titaničitého ako adsorbenta farbív
Potential use of titanium oxide as absorbent of pigments

Renata HODOSSYOVÁ, Eva CHMIELEWSKÁ, Jana DONOVALOVÁ
179
Týden výzkumu a inovací pro praxi 2014 185


ABSTRACTS

 

Characteristics of recycled paper
Iveta ČABALOVÁ
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies, Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology, Technical Univerzity in Zvolen, T. G. Masaryka 24, 960 53 Zvolen, e-mail: cabalova@tuzvo.sk
Summary
The aim of this work was to provide more knowledge about the impact of drying temperature and number of recycling on the quality of fibres and paper. It is influence of temperature and easy recycling process on selected properties of paper pulps including their aesthetic character. The influence of temperature and number of recycling process upon selected properties of the pulp fibres was investigated. Bleached kraft pulp was made from a mixture of soft woods. Basically it was the study of the physico-chemical effects on fibres in the recycling process, or pulp aging accompanied by chemical and chemical-structural changes. The fibre aging is caused by the action of different influences, namely chemical, photochemical, biochemical, radiochemical, or their combination and not necessarily caused only by paper recycling. After the fifth recycling faulted changes (extremes) were observable in mechanical (mainly tear index) and optical properties by all followed temperatures. We interpret these changes as ending of outside and more intense of inside fibrillation and delamination. The influence of recycling number on selected properties of fibres was evident after every beating process and this effect was markedly proved in pulp drying at the highest temperature -120 °C.
Keywords: paper recycling, breaking length, tear index, brightness, opacity, polymerisation degree

Innovated method of solidification of radioactive sludges taking into account the safety improvement during processing
Štěpán SVOBODA, Lukáš GRIČ, Josef SÜSSMILCH, Petr FABIÁN
CHEMCOMEX Praha, a.s., Elišky Přemyslovny 379, Praha 5 - Zbraslav.
Summary
The aim of this article is to give brief information about the processing unit for solidification of semi-liquid waste and demonstrate its functionality and technological safety on the treatment of five different types of model waste .
Keywords: Self-cleaning effect, mixer, solidification, liquid waste, semi-liquid waste, processing safety

Mapping of siloxanes in biogas production process
Alice PROCHÁZKOVÁ, Barbora MIKLOVÁ
Institute of Chemical Technology, Departement of Gas, Coke and Air Protection, Prague
Summary
The issue of organosilicon compounds in the biogas is beginning to emerge in the last few years and is directly associated particularly with the increasing potential of a wide variety of products of daily life, containing siloxanes. These compounds are very often found in various products used in industrial scale, but also in homes. These include detergents, shampoos, deodorants and various types of cosmetics. Most low molecular weight siloxanes leaking rapidly into the atmosphere, some siloxanes ends up in waste water or in landfills, when the consumer washes or dispose of used product or its packaging. Higher concentrations of siloxanes can be found in the biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. In contrast, the biogas generated from the decomposition of organic biomass or animal excrement in the agricultural biogas plants, with siloxanes almost absent. Since siloxanes are not in any way harmful or dangerous, many operators of wastewater treatment plants and landfills have never heard of them. However, if the use of biogas for energy purposes, the siloxanes become one of the most monitored and controlled contaminants in biogas.
Since the available literature focuses on the extent to mapping siloxanes in the resulting biogas is a contribution to describe the results obtained mapping potential sources of siloxanes from the selected beauty products, together with analyzes of sewage sludge from municipal sewage treatment plants, which are substrates for the formation of sludge gas. The paper also compares the determined concentration of siloxanes in the solid and liquid phases of primary and secondary sewage sludge.

Keywords: biogas, siloxanes, resources, mapping, sewage sludge.

Utilization of various barium compounds as sulphates remover
Tomislav ŠPALDON, Jozef HANČUĽÁK, Oľga ŠESTINOVÁ, Lenka FINDORÁKOVÁ, Tomáš KURBEL
Institute of Geotechnics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 45, 043 53 Košice, Slovak Republic, e-mail: spaldon@saske.sk
Summary
Acid mine drainage, known as AMD are more prevalent in areas where sulphide ores were mined, in Slovakia it was in Smolník, Pezinok, Šobov and Slovinky. These waters are characterized by a high value of sulphates, metals, such as Cu, Fe, Mn, etc. and low pH. Such water causes almost devastating conditions for the healthy life of fish and other organisms. Smolník creek was in the '90s marked as the worst surface flow in Slovakia, in fifth degree of contamination. Considering these facts was the research work oriented to the removal of sulphates from model solutions similar to AMD using barium compounds.
This paper presents results obtained from reacting barium carbonate, barium chloride and barium hydroxide with sulphate containing model solution. Sulphate concentration decrease was monitored at various concentrations of barium and sampling at 30 min., 60 min. and 120 minutes. Using various barium compounds we decreased sulphates values under 1 mg.l-1. Whereas limit for sulphates is 250 mg.l-1, it is logical that achieved results are highly under allowed limits. Results of the experiments were illustrated and described in tables and graphs.

Keywords: waste water, precipitation, AMD, sulphate removal, barium compounds

The use of migration tests in constructed wetlands
Pavel ŠIMEKa, Ivan LANDAb, Marek MERHAUTb, Andrea Juanola FREIXASa
a Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129,Praha 6 - Suchdol, 165 21, Czech Republic, e-mail: simekp@fzp.czu.cz, b Institute of Hospitality Management in Prague, Svidnická 506/1, 181 00 Praha-Troja, e-mail: i.landa@email.cz
Summary
Constructed wetlands (CW) are being used to treat mainly municipal waste water in recent times i.e. water from households, restaurants, guest houses or hotels. Their number is constantly increasing, as they have proved their advantage to retain water in landscape and enhance supply of groundwater. Effectiveness of treating process is limited due to the dependence on climatic conditions and a type and degree of residual pollution, while not only artificial, but also natural wetlands function as constructed wetlands. That´s why more attention is paid to the evaluation of practical experience and research of constructed wetlands in order to increase their safety and environmental performance. It is being proved that their performance depends on many factors causing that the effectivity of treatment processes in various sections of CW can be quite different from the usual deep-rooted assumptions. Migration tests are appropriate for studying and verification of cleaning processes heterogeneity. It is an effective method of continuous evaluation of their performance and for quantification of hydraulic condition changes. The principle of migration tests is the dotation of indicator at the CW inlet and measuring its concentration in the effluent. Then the parameters of CW are calculated from obtained breakthrough (concentration) curve. Within Research oriented works there have been carried out a migrating test based on model constructed wetlands in the village called Křešín in Hořovice area. The resulting concentration curve and calculated parameters indicate a properly functioning wetland but the preferential flow in CW has been created. Inspite of some unclarity and inaccuracy provisionally associated with migration tests, this type of tests is suitable for appraisal of correct design of constructed wetlands and observation of their changes of performance over times.
Keywords: sewage treatment, tracer tests, indicator

Potential use of titanium oxide as adsorbent of pigments
Renata HODOSSYOVÁa, Eva CHMIELEWSKÁa, Jana DONOVALOVÁb
aEnvironmental Ecology Department, bChemical Institute, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic, chmielewska@fns.uniba.sk
Summary
Titanium oxide obtained from Centralchem Co. Bratislava was examined for acid red 18 adsorption from its aqueous solutions. Freundlich and Langmuir models of adsorption isotherm were calculated based upon the measured kinetic data. The adsorption efficiency towards azodye arised with the decreasing pH in solutions.
Keywords: photovoltaics, titanium oxide, colour Acid red 18, adsorption, isotherm

 

WASTE FORUM 2013, 2, str. 47 - 135

 

OBSAH  
Úvodní slovo šéfredaktora 49
Pro autory 49
Nové technológie výstavby z pohľadu znižovania odpadov
New construction technology in terms of waste reduction

Mária KOZLOVSKÁ, Marcela SPIŠÁKOVÁ
50
Možnost využití skládkovaného elektrárenského popílku pro výrobu cementových kompozitů
Possibility of using wet way dumped fly ash in the cement composites

Denisa ORSÁKOVÁ , Rudolf HELA
61
Monitoring kvality popelů ze spalování biomasy (2. část - rizikové prvky, PAU)
The monitoring of ash quality from biomass combustion (Part 2 -risk elements, PAH´s)

Pavla OCHECOVÁ, Pavel TLUSTOŠ, Jiřina SZÁKOVÁ, Ivana PERNÁ, Tomáš HANZLÍČEK
67
Polyfenoly z hroznových výlisků a jejich testování UV zářením v karboxymethylcelulózových filmech
Polyphenols from grape pomace and their UV radiation testing in carboxymethyl cellulose films

Hana KŘÍŽOVÁ, Jakub WIENER
76
Zpracování síry z odsíření odpadních plynů ze zplynění uhlí na agrochemické přípravky
Processing of sulfur from flue gas desulfurization of coal gasification for agrochemical products

Petr BURYAN
83
Získavanie medi z dosiek plošných spojov spôsobom biolúhovania
Copper recovery from printed circuit boards by bioleaching

Anna MRAŽÍKOVÁ, Renáta MARCINČÁKOVÁ, Jana KADUKOVÁ
90
Termická aktivita skládek komunálních odpadů - metody a výsledky: případová studie ve středních Čechách
Thermal activity of municipal waste landfills - methods and results: a case study in the Central Bohemia

Helena STRAKOVÁ
95
Porovnání dvou typů kvasinkových biosurfaktantů pro odstraňování ropných uhlovodíků
Comparison of two yeast biosurfactants for the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons

Marek ŠÍR, Zuzana HONZAJKOVÁ, Kristina TURNVALDOVÁ, Jiří MIKEŠ, Martin KUBAL, Radek VURM, Juraj GRÍGEL, Miroslav MINAŘÍK
104
Vliv kolísání teploty na čištění odpadních vod s extrémním obsahem dusíku
The Influence of Temperature Fluctuation on the Treatment of Wastewater with Extreme Nitrogen Content

Helena HRNČÍŘOVÁ, Pavel ŠVEHLA, Josef RADECHOVSKÝ, Lukáš PACEK, Blanka MIKULOVÁ, Jiří BALÍK
110
Srážení struvitu pro recyklaci nutrientů z odpadních vod: vliv pH a kinetika procesu v modelových systémech
Struvite precipitation utilized for recovery of nutrients from wastewater: Effect of pH and reaction kinetics measurement in model systems

Ondřej LHOTSKÝ, Luboš ZÁPOTOCKÝ, Marek ŠVÁB, Tereza HUDCOVÁ
120
Iónová výmena a adsorpcia na slovenskom klinoptilolitovom tufe z pohľadu retrospektív a súčasnosti
Ion Exchange and Adsorption using the Slovakian Clinoptilolite-rich Tuff - via the Retrospectives to the Present State
Eva CHMIELEWSKÁ, Josef KONEČNÝ, Zden?k BOŠAN, Ján ŠVANCER
128
Symposium ODPADOVÉ FÓRUM 2013 - zvláště exkurze se vydařila
Ondřej Procházka
135
První setkání pedagogů - odpadářů 135

 

ABSTRACTS

 

New construction technology in terms of waste reduction
Mária Kozlovská, Marcela Spišáková
Technical University of Košice, Civil Engineering Faculty, Slovak Republic
Summary
In the present period of sustainable approaches is an urgent issue on huge quantities of wastage generation in construction. Construction waste is considered as one of the main factors having an impact on the environment. The increasing environmental impact from the construction becomes a serious problem that can cause significant damage, not only to ecosystems but also to the health and wellbeing of field workers and nearby residents of construction sites. Therefore, it is necessary to approach and continuous effort within the construction industry and production in order to achieve the objectives sustainable construction as well as reducing of the environmental impacts of construction. A recent study shows that construction is the third largest polluter in terms of environmental pollution and construction waste presents approximately a quarter of the total waste volume. Therefore, it is necessary to consider possibilities for reduce of construction waste origin, whether conventional ways (e.g. recycling) or less unconventional ways. One of the possible solutions is the use of "new construction technologies" - modern methods of construction (MMC) that offer significant potential to minimise construction waste. Modern methods of construction primarily involve more less the manufacture of construction parts in factories, with potential benefits of construction waste reduction in the stage of construction elements production or construction process. The paper is focused on the researches of reduce construction waste through the using of modern methods of panels or modules construction in this field. Conclusion of paper monitors the conditions of construction waste issue in Slovak republic and selected countries and describes a situation in the field of prefabrication, as a basic technology of MMC, use considering the specifics of construction in Slovakia.
Keywords: construction, construction waste, waste reduction, modern methods of construction (MMC)

Possibility of using wet way dumped fly ash in the cement composites
Denisa Orsáková , Rudolf Hela
Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Building materials department, Czech Republic
Summary
This paper is focused on the study of the possibility of using wet-way dumped fly ash into the cement composites. In this way of the dumping is fly ash moistened with the right amount of water. On the top of the fly ash mass is created a crust. These crust protects against the dusting and the poluting of the air. The second benefit is decreasing of the fly ash price as an active additive for concrete. One of the price part is the money for an storage in a storage bin. Nevertheless it was some worry about the influence of the wet way dumping on the fly ash properties - especialy effect on the activity in the cement-fly ash composites. Three kinds of the fly ash was studied - the fly ash dumped in March 2010, the fly ash dumped in March 2012 and the fly ash from storage silo. Therefore dumping time was 1.5 , 0.5 and 0 years.
Keywords: fly ash, wet way dumping

The monitoring of ash quality from biomass combustion (Part 2 - Risk elements, PAH´s)
Pavla Ochecová, Pavel Tlustoš, Jiřina Szákováa, Ivana Perná, Tomáš Hanzlíčekb
aThe monitoring of ash quality from biomass combustion (Part 2 - Risk elements, PAH´s)
bInstitute of Rock Structure and Mechanicsofthe ASCR, v. v. i., V Holešovičkách 41, 182 09, Prague 8

Summary
Ash generated in biomass incinerators, contains significant amounts of nutrients that would be appropriate to recycle into the soil. If the combustion process is not optimally controlled all time then the feedstock may not be perfectly burned. Therefore ash may contain polycyclic aromatic compounds, which was confirmed by our analysis. Another limiting factor for the entry of these materials into the soil may also be, in some cases higher, contents of risk elements. Overview of current Czech and international legislation in the field of fertilizers or directly biomass ash, indicates that our legislative regulations are in terms of maximum permissible content of risk elements in fertilizing materials, compared to foreign countries, very strict and there is a space for creating new standards, the special one, just for ash from the combustion of biomass.
Keywords: ash, biomass, trace elements, loss on ignition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Polyphenols from grape pomace and their UV radiation testing in carboxymethyl cellulose films.
Hana KŘÍŽOVÁ, Jakub WIENER
Department of Textile Engineering, Faculty of Textile, Technical University of Liberec, Studentská 2, 461 17 Liberec, Czech Republic, e-mail: hana.krizova@tul.cz , jakub.wiener@tul.cz
Summary
The aim of this work was to test the polyphenols on carboxymethyl cellulose, which served as their carrier. The aqueous extract of blue marc vine variety Fratava was used as a source of polyphenols. These substances (in particular anthocyanins and tannins) have significant biochemical effects, including antioxidant ones able to destroy free radicals. There were examined changes occurring in this complex of polyphenols after exposure to UV radiation. Polyphenols content was measured before and after exposure to UV radiation and simultaneously determined changes in their antioxidant effect. It was found out that despite the very low light stability of coloured anthocyanins, the high content of total polyphenols was maintained even after 24 hour exposure to UV radiation and especially there was no significant change in their ability to quench free radicals.
Keywords: marc, polyphenols, carboxymethyl cellulose, UV radiation, antioxidant, free radical

Processing of sulfur from flue gas desulfurization of coal gasification for agrochemical products
Petr Buryan
Processing of sulfur from flue gas desulfurization of coal gasification for agrochemical products
Summary
The study focused on the utilization of waste sulfur from from desulphurisation of brown coal gasification flue gas in fungicide agents. Through laboratory studies and greenhouse experiments it was shown that antifungal agrochemical products with a contact surface effect produced from this sulfur are not phytotoxic. Additionaly, the shift of sulfur particles distribution in the innovative agent is better when compared to the shift in current agents. The contents of impurities in the newly prepared agent are acceptable for the agricultural practice.
Keywords: Sulikol, waste sulfur, agrochemicals

Copper recovery from printed circuit boards by bioleaching
Anna MRAŽÍKOVÁ, Renáta MARCINČÁKOVÁ, Jana KADUKOVÁ
Department of Material Science, Faculty of Metallurgy, Technical University in Košice, Park Komenského 11, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic, E-mail: anna.mrazikova@tuke.sk
Summary
Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the important part of electronic equipments and their composition may be variable to a certain extent. They can contain up to 28 % metals therefore they are considered as valuable secondary metal sources. The main metal component of PCB is copper with content of 10 - 20 %. Cu bioleaching by bacteria occurs by the similar way as metal bioleaching from sulfidic ores. Almost 54 % Cu was released into the solution in 29 days by pure bacterial culture A. ferrooxidans. In this way six times higher Cu leaching efficiency was reached compared with copper leaching without bacteria. pH changes measured during bioleaching processes were one of the factors of Cu release into the solution. The assay was carried out at initial pH value of 1.5 and its increase was coincident with the copper leaching into the solution. The optimal pH for Cu bioleaching was found pH = 2.0, however, the increase of pH above 2.2 resulted in a decrease of Cu bioleaching efficiency. The results of bioleaching processes are significant for understanding how to implement these processes on an industrial scale.
Keywords: bioleaching, printed circuit boards, electronic waste, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, copper

Thermal activity of municipal waste landfills - methods and results: a case study in the Central Bohemia
Helena Straková
Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 21 Praha 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic, e-mail: strakova@fzp.czu.cz
Summary
Municipal waste landfills may show signs of thermal activity. The aim of this paper was detection of landfill thermal activity; which method of monitoring is the most suitable (field measurement, remote sensing); verify the correlation of carbon dioxide, thickness of landfill body, soil moisture and temperature; and prove or exclude the influence of vegetation cover on landfill body temperature. Although all tested landfills are not thermally active, the field measurement proved a correlation of carbon dioxide on landfill body thickness. A weak correlation of temperature on vegetation cover thought relative soil moisture is certified. Remote sensing methods - satellite and airborne thermal data - are unsuitable for landfill thermal activity measurement, so the field monitoring is much more sufficient.
Keywords: municipal waste landfills, thermal activity, correlation

Comparison of two yeast biosurfactants for the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons
Marek Šíra, Zuzana Honzajkováa, Kristina Turnvaldová, Jiří Mikeš, Martin Kubala, Radek Vurma, Juraj Grígel, Miroslav Minaříkb
aInstitute of Chemical Technology Prague, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Technická 5, Praha 6, 166 28, Czech Republic, E-mail: sirm@vscht.cz
bEPS, s.r.o., V Pastouškách 205, 686 04 Kunovice, Czech Republic, E-mail: eps@epssro.cz

Summary
The aim of this paper was to produce, isolate and characterize two types of biosurfactant produced by yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida bombicola and quantify their potential for stimulated attenuation. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) and minimum surface tension (MST) were determined for both biosurfactants. CMC = 31 mg/L and MST = 40 mN/m (producer Yarrowia lipolytica), CMC = 83 mg/L and MST = 43 mN/m (producer Candida bombicola). Lower interfacial tension causes that non-polar carbon source can be easily utilized by microorganisms, thus dependence of interfacial tension between organic phase and surfactant solution was measured. Kerosene and crude oil were chosen as representatives of organic phase. Biosurfactant produced by Yarrowia lipolytica was found to be more effective for remediation application, because its solution decreased the interfacial tension by 80%.
Keywords: biosurfactant, surface tension, critical micelle concentration, interfacial tension, petroleum hydrocarbons

The Influence of Temperature Fluctuation on the Treatment of Wastewater with Extreme Nitrogen Content
Hrnčířová Helena, Švehla Pavel, Radechovský Josef, Pacek Lukáš, Mikulová Blanka, Balík Jiří
The Department of Agroenvironmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, the Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, CULS in Prague, Kamýcká 129, Prague 6 - Suchdol, 165 21, Czech Republic, E-mail: hrncirovah@af.czu.cz, svehla@af.czu.cz
Summary
In this experiment the influence of temperature fluctuations on removal of ammonia nitrogen (N-ammon) from wastewater with high N-ammon concentration was investigated. The short cut nitrification in sequencing batch reactor was simulated under laboratory conditions. The reject water with N-ammon concentration in the range of 1000 - 1400 mg/l was used. The reactor initially worked at a constant temperature of 25 °C, than the temperature was reduced to 15 °C. After evaluation of the nitrification process under these conditions the temperature was again set to 25 °C. The tests were focused on the evaluation the effect of temperature drop from 25 °C to 18 °C and 16, 5 °C. In the next stage of the experiment the temperature was reduced gradually from 25 to 13 °C. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reactor was not be limited, pH value was not be regulated. It was found that the decrease in temperature from 25 °C to 15 °C and 16.5 °C affected the stability of the process, but a drop in temperature from 25 °C to 18 °C did not lead to significant changes in the process. It was also found that during gradual reduction of temperature the process stability was significantly affected at a temperature of 13 °C. In all stages of the experiment the short cut nitrification was achieved, the nitrite accumulation ratio was between 81 a 98 %. The results of experiments can be used to optimize the treatment of landfill leachate, wastewater from biogas stations and other wastewater with high N-ammon concentration.
Keywords: wastewater, nitrogen removal, nitrites, temperature, short cut nitrification

Struvite precipitation utilized for recovery of nutrients from wastewater: Effect of pH and reaction kinetics measurement in model systems
Ondřej LHOTSKÝ, Luboš ZÁPOTOCKÝ, Marek ŠVÁB, Tereza HUDCOVÁ
Dekonta,a.s., Dřetovice 109, 273 42 Stehelčeves, Czech Republic, E-mail: lhotsky@dekonta.cz
Summary
In the first part of presented contribution advantages of utilization of magnesium-ammonium phosphate (MAP, struvite) precipitation for wastewater treatment are summarized as well as information from literature concerning mineral struvite and its precipitation. Tests performed in system comprising of magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium dihydrogen phosphate and sodium hydroxide in demineralized water are described in experimental part. Effects of different pH levels on struvite precipitation were examined and compared with a mathematical model created in Geochemist's Workbench software. Reaction kinetics was also measured.
Keywords: struvite, MAP, nutrient recovery

Ion Exchange and Adsorption using the Slovakian Clinoptilolite-rich Tuff - via the Retrospectives to the Present State
Eva Chmielewskáa, Josef Konečný, Zdeněk Bošan, Ján Švancerb
aDepartment of Environmental Ecology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina B2, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
bWaste water treatment plant - TOMA a.s., Tr. Tomase Bati 1566, 765 82 Otrokovice, Czech Republic

Súhrn
Topic of this paper is to review some of practical applications of clinoptilolite rich tuff, deposited at the Eastern Slovakian repository Nižný Hrabovec, which has been used for inland water treatment processes in the last 25 years. Ammonia removal from tannery wastewater using the clinoptilolite rich tuff with chemical regeneration and regenerant recovery by air stripping was carried out during the several months in 1987 at the mixed Wastewater Reclamation Facility in Otrokovice (Moravia region). Some surface modified zeolitic adsorbents have been examined for environmental pollutants removal from model solutions at the laboratory, respectively.
Kľúčové slová: natural clinoptilolite from the mine at Nižný Hrabovec, ion exchange and adsorption, with surfactant modified and by biopolymeric pelletized zeolite, inorganic nutrients removal from waters, regeneration, air striping.

 

WASTE FORUM 2013, 1, str. 1 - 46

 

OBSAH  
Úvodní slovo šéfredaktora 3
Pro autory 3
Kůra jako potenciální zdroj průmyslově využitelných látek: analýza obsahu vybraných fenolických sloučenin
Bark as potential source of chemical substances for industry: analysis of content of selected phenolic compounds

Petr MARŠÍK, Jan KOTYZA, Jan REZEK, Tomáš VANĚK
4
Mezofilné a termofilné anaeróbne spracovanie ovocných a zeleninových odpadov
Anaerobic treatment of fruit and vegetable wastes at mesophilic and thermophilic condition

Michal LAZOR, Miroslav HUTŇAN, Nina KOLESÁROVÁ, Anna ORSÁGOVÁ
10
Vliv přídavku kompostu na únik minerálního dusíku a produkci biomasy
Influence of added compost on leakage of mineral nitrogen and biomass production

Lukáš PLOŠEK, Jakub ELBL, Antonín KINTL, Jaroslav ZÁHORA, Jaroslav HYNŠT
20
Využití odpadních materiálů pro přípravu brusných nástrojů na bázi anorganických polymerů
Utilization of waste materials for preparation of abrasive tools on base of inorganic polymers

Ivana PERNÁ, Tomáš HANZLÍČEK
29
Produkční proces lipofilních kvasinek v rámci vývoje biologického surfaktantu
Lipophilic yeast production process in the biosurfactant development

Kristina TURNVALDOVÁ, Marek ŠÍR, Zuzana HONZAJKOVÁ, Jiří MIKEŠ, Juraj GRÍGEL, Miroslav MINAŘÍK
37
Týden vědy, výzkumu a inovací pro praxi 46

 

ABSTRACTS

 

Bark as potential source of chemical substances for industry: analysis of content of selected phenolic compounds
Petr MARŠÍK, Jan KOTYZA, Jan REZEK, Tomáš VANĚK
Laboratory of plant biotechnology, Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, Rozvojová 263, 165 02, Prague 6 - Lysolaje, e-mail: marsik@ueb.cas.cz, kotyzaj@vscht.cz, rezek@ueb.cas.cz, vanek@ueb.cas.cz
Summary
The bark of coniferous trees constitutes a considerable amounts of residue biomass generated during wood processing. The bark biomass is then partly used as a fuel (pellets), burned in furnace or recycled as mulching material. Despite its usage as an energy source, the bark also represents significant source of various chemical substances, which can be utilized by chemical, pharmaceutical or food industry and could add value to current utilization of this by-product. In our study, we monitored concentration of phenolic acids, selected flavonoids and maltol in water and methanolic extracts from young bark of two economically important coniferous trees harvested in Czech Republic: larch (Larix decidua) and scots pine (Pinus silvestris). The analysis of the extracts prepared by simple and inexpensive method confirmed the presence of several chemical compounds of industrial importance.
Keywords: bark, extraction, phenolic compounds, maltol, larch, scots pine

Anaerobic treatment of fruit and vegetable wastes at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions
Michal LAZORa, Miroslav HUTŇANa, Nina KOLESÁROVÁa, Anna ORSÁGOVÁb
aDepartment of Environmental Engineering,
bDepartment of Chemical Technology of Wood, Pulp and Paper
Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava, Slovak Republic, e-mail: miroslav.hutnan@stuba.sk

Summary
A substantial part of biodegradable municipal wastes are fruit and vegetable wastes. These types of wastes are most involved in the formation of landfill gas problem. Their disposal in landfill is not only dangerous but also ineffective, because in themselves contain relatively high amounts of organic matter that could be effectively used, for example in anaerobic processes for biogas production. Fruit and vegetable wastes are characterized by high portion of organic matter (volatile solids) and by high content quickly and easily biodegradable compounds (especially carbohydrates). This makes them an ideal substrate for biogas plants. On the other hand, the ratio of organic carbon and nitrogen in these materials (C: N) is relatively high (60). This ratio is the key parameter influencing the stability of the anaerobic degradation and its optimum value is in the range 20 - 40. Such a high ratio C:N can cause accumulation of volatile fatty acids and subsequent inhibition and collapse of the anaerobic process respectively. In this work the effect of temperature on the anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes was studied. This effect was investigated in the period of 145 days in the two stirred semicontinuous reactors with volume of 1.8 L at the mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Higher values of the most important monitored parameters (organic loading rate and specific biogas production) were achieved in the thermophilic reactor (4.0 vs. 3.0 kg m-3 d-1 of volatile solids or 670 vs. 592 L of biogas per kg of volatile solids). In this work the positive effect of higher temperature on the anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste was proved.
Key words: biogas, fruit and vegetable wastes, mesophilic process, thermophilic process

Influence of added compost on leakage of mineral nitrogen and biomass production
Lukáš PLOŠEK, Jakub ELBL Antonín KINTL Jaroslav ZÁHORA Jaroslav HYNŠT
Department of Agrochemistry, Soil Science, Microbiology and Plant Nutrition, Faculty
of agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1/1665, 613 00 Brno
e-mail: lukas.plosek@mendelu.cz

Summary
The leakage of mineral forms of nitrogen from arable land is the main source of nitrate contamination of underground drinking water deposits in the locality Březová nad Svitavou. Previous research studies have shown a direct link between the use of mineral nitrogen fertilizers, leakage of mineral nitrogen (Nmin) and the quality of underground water. This study is aimed at assessing using of composts, as alternative organic fertilizers to reduce leakage Nmin while maintaining or increasing the production of plant biomass.
In laboratory pot experiment was shown that the addition of compost has a significant effect on the reduction of leakage Nmin and on increasing of plant biomass production.

Keywords: nitrogen, compost, nitrogen leaching, biomass production

Utilization of waste materials for preparation of abrasive tools on base of inorganic polymers
Ivana Perná, Tomáš Hanzlíček
Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, v.v.i.
e-mail: perna@irsm.cas.cz

Summary
Nowadays the lowering of manufacturing costs is essential in all industrial companies and even in the abrasive tool production. This paper describes the research and development of new abrasive tools on base of inorganic polymers using waste blast furnace slag. Used technology and possibility of utilization of waste materials decrease manufacturing costs and for that reason the price of abrasive tools fixed by inorganic polymer is considerably lower. Produced abrasive segments were tested in semi-industrial condition and the results proved that abrasive tools prepared from clay-slag matrix are comparable with ceramic-bonded materials.
Keywords: waste material utilization, geopolymers, abrasive tools

Lipophilic yeast production process in the biosurfactant development
Kristina TURNVALDOVÁ1, Jiří MIKEŠ1, Marek ŠÍR2, Zuzana HONZAJKOVÁ2, Juraj GRÍGEL1, Miroslav MINAŘÍK1
1EPS, s.r.o., V Pastouškách 205, 686 04 Kunovice, e-mail: eps@epssro.cz
2VŠCHT Praha, Fakulta technologie ochrany prostředí, Technická 5, Praha 6, 166 28
e-mail: sirm@vscht.cz

Summary
Biologically produced surface active compounds (biosurfactants) are very promising tool in innovative soil washing. Apart from the bacterial products (rhamnolipids), biosurfactants synthesized by the lipophilic yeast may be used in technological solutions. This study represents a part of the research project. Its main goal is targeted on the preparation of yeast biosurfactants and their application in soil washing (non-polar contaminants). A study of selected lipophilic yeast to metabolize and emulsify a model type of non-polar substances in extracellular environment was carried out. Each stage of the process had been tested and optimized to describe the production process. Consequently, all process conditions were adjusted in order to increase the yields of the yeast biosurfactant.
Keywords: lipophilic yeast, biosurfactant, soil washing, non-polar compounds